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Therapies available

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy which is based on the premise that what we think (cognition) and do (behaviour) can impact how we feel. CBT focuses on identifying and understanding the “vicious cycles” and patterns we can become stuck in, and developing skills and strategies to move towards a process of change. CBT has been widely researched, has a good evidence base and is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for a wide range of problems, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders.

Whilst CBT typically focuses on the “here and now” it also references the past, and how our experiences may have shaped our belief systems, and coping strategies. It is a collaborative, structured and time-limited approach and is an “active” therapy in that there is a focus on between session work, such as monitoring symptoms and experimenting with new ideas.

For more information about CBT please follow these links:

Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT)

Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) was developed by professor Paul Gilbert over 20 years ago after he recognised that whilst many people benefited from CBT, a significant proportion struggled to feel reassured by the alternative thoughts they generated. This was particularly apparent in individuals who were prone to high self criticism and shame.

CFT is an integrative therapy, drawing from evolutionary theory, neuroscience and attachment theory, as well as Buddhist practises, and aims to help people develop a sense of inner security and confidence and a kinder, more connected and understanding way of relating to themselves and others.

CFT helps to balance difficult emotions such as anxiety and anger, and uses skills ("Compassionate Mind Training") including mindfulness and imagery practises.


For more information about CFT please follow these links:

Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) was developed by Marsha Linehan in America. It was initially developed to help individuals with difficulties related to impulsive behaviour, difficulties regulating their emotions, and suicidal thoughts and feelings. However, over the last few years DBT has been found to benefit many people who do not necessarily experience all of the difficulties it was originally designed to help.

DBT is a behavioural therapy. It is a structured approach and is very here and now focussed. It is divided into four components: Mindfulness, Emotional regulation, Distress Tolerance and Interpersonal  Effectiveness.

In its full form DBT requires attendance at a group alongside weekly individual therapy. We do not run a full DBT programme at Reflect but elements of DBT are drawn upon and used as they are needed. The skills that DBT teaches can benefit all of us and increase our understanding of our emotions, how to deal with them and how to manage relationships more effectively.

For more information on DBT please follow these links:

Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT)

Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) was developed by Anthony Ryle as a brief therapy focused on the "social" formation of the self and the importance of "dialogism". CAT focuses on patterns of relating which underpin difficulties; the so called "reciprocal roles" that we all take during interactions with others (others-self and self-others) and with ourselves (self-self). CAT aims to help individuals to notice and understand these patterns, before moving to a process of revision and change.

CAT has three distinct phases of therapy (3Rs): Reformulation of problems; Recognition of enactments in daily life and in therapy; and Revision (exiting patterns and establishing more helpful ways of being and relating). It is an intensive and active therapy, with the therapeutic relationship playing an integral part in both identifying and modifying key problematic reciprocal roles underpinning presenting difficulties. 

CAT is helpful for a wide range of problems including depression, anxiety, eating disorders and personality disorders. 


For more information on CAT please follow these links:

Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy (EMDR)

EMDR is a therapy that was developed to treat PTSD but has since been found to be very effective with a range of other difficulties including phobias, anxiety and OCD. EMDR works to 'unstick' distressing memories through the use of bilateral stimulation (this could involve eye movements, tapping or holding buzzers in your hands). This reduces distress and allows difficult memories to be processed and integrated. 
EMDR is recognised by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for PTSD. 

Please follow this link for an excellent description of EMDR therapy: EMDR – Client Handout (

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