Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy which is based on the premise that what we think (cognition) and do (behaviour) can impact how we feel. CBT focuses on identifying and understanding the “vicious cycles” and patterns we can become stuck in, and developing skills and strategies to move towards a process of change. CBT has been widely researched, has a good evidence base and is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for a wide range of problems, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders.
Whilst CBT typically focuses on the “here and now” it also references the past, and how our experiences may have shaped our belief systems, and coping strategies. It is a collaborative, structured and time-limited approach and is an “active” therapy in that there is a focus on between session work, such as monitoring symptoms and experimenting with new ideas.
For more information about CBT please follow these links:
Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT)
Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) is a broadly “cognitive behavioural” therapy in that it too focuses on the way we think and behave, whilst integrating ideas and practices from different traditions. It was developed by professor Paul Gilbert over 20 years ago after he recognised that whilst many people benefited from CBT, a significant proportion struggled to feel reassured by the alternative thoughts they generated. This was particularly apparent in individuals who were prone to high self criticism and shame.
CFT is an integrative approach, drawing from evolutionary theory, neuroscience and attachment theory, as well as Buddhist practises, and aims to help people develop a sense of inner security and confidence and a kinder, more understanding way of relating to themselves and others.
CFT helps to balance difficult emotions such as anxiety and anger, and uses skills ("Compassionate Mind Training") including mindfulness and imagery practises.
For more information about CFT please follow these links:
Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT)
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) was developed by Marsha Linehan in America. It was initially developed to help individuals with difficulties related to impulsive behaviour, difficulties regulating their emotions, and suicidal thoughts and feelings. However, over the last few years DBT has been found to benefit many people who do not necessarily experience all of the difficulties it was originally designed to help.
DBT is a behavioural therapy. It is a structured approach and is very here and now focussed. It is divided into four components: Mindfulness, Emotional regulation, Distress Tolerance and Interpersonal Effectiveness.
In its full form DBT requires attendance at a group alongside weekly individual therapy. We do not run a full DBT programme at Reflect but elements of DBT are drawn upon and used as they are needed. The skills that DBT teaches can benefit all of us and increase our understanding of our emotions, how to deal with them and how to manage relationships more effectively.
For more information on DBT please follow these links:
Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT)
Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) was developed by Anthony Ryle as a brief therapy focused on the "social" formation of the self and the importance of "dialogism". CAT focuses on patterns of relating which underpin difficulties; the so called "reciprocal roles" that we all take during interactions with others (others-self and self-others) and with ourselves (self-self). CAT aims to help individuals to notice and understand these patterns, before moving to a process of revision and change.
CAT has three distinct phases of therapy (3Rs): Reformulation of problems; Recognition of enactments in daily life and in therapy; and Revision (exiting patterns and establishing more helpful ways of being and relating). It is an intensive and active therapy, with the therapeutic relationship playing an integral part in both identifying and modifying key problematic reciprocal roles underpinning presenting difficulties.
CAT is helpful for a wide range of problems including depression, anxiety, eating disorders and personality disorders.
Alex is currently completing a two year CAT practitioner training and thus can offer a CAT informed approach.
For more information on CAT please follow these links:
EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing)
EMDR is a therapy that was developed to treat PTSD but has since been found to be very effective with a range of other difficulties, including phobias, anxiety and OCD. EMDR can be used with children and adults and involves the person to move their eyes from side to side while thinking to the distressing memory or event. The idea is that the eye movements help 'unstick' the distressing elements of the memory or event and allow it to be processed. It also enables desensitisation to the associated emotions to occur.
EMDR is recognised by the National Insitute for Health and Care Excellance (NICE) for PTSD,
Please follow this link for an excellent description of EMDR therapy
Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)
MBT was originally developed in the 1990’s and initially used to treat people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mentalizing is the ability to understand actions by both other people and oneself in terms of thoughts, feelings, wishes and desires and it is a very human capability that underpins our everyday interactions with others.
In Mentalisation Based Therapy (MBT), the therapist focuses on the client’s understanding of their own intentions and those of others. He or she tries to help manage the client’s levels of emotional arousal to enable mentalising capacity. MBT places less emphasis on past relationships and the meaning of events; rather the therapist and client explore the client’s processes when mentalising capacity is compromised in present relationships. The therapist adopts a so-called “inquisitive” or not-knowing approach, setting assumptions aside to allow for uncertainty. He or she strives to remain open to how the client interprets the actions of themselves and others. This in turn aims to help the client develop and maintain an attitude of curiosity.
MBT helps people think before they react to their own feelings or to the perceived feelings of others. With an improved ability to mentalize, patients not only process their own thoughts, feelings, and related behaviors differently, but also better understand that another person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior may be different than the way they are interpreted by the patient. The goal of MBT is for patients to not only mentalize themselves but also mentalize others and think about what may be driving other people’s thoughts and behaviors so as to not misinterpret the meaning and respond inappropriately.
Group therapy is a kind of psychological therapy that takes place with a group of people together, rather than with an individual during a one-on-one session. It is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small number of clients together as a group. In psychodynamic group therapy, the group context and the group process are used as a way of eliciting change by developing, exploring and examining interpersonal relationships within the group. Having therapy in a group environment can have many benefits as it offers a support network and provides the opportunity to meet others experiencing similar concerns. Together with the therapist and the other group members you should be encouraged to share your experiences and work on understanding yourself better.